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The word “perception” refers to the process when the brain interprets impulses received from the senses in order to give meaning to these. 

Example: Eyes see a piece of meat, nose smells the meat, the brain interprets the impulses as food and the observer feels hungry. 


Memory is the ability to memorise information received from the eyes and the ears. 

Short-term memory: Memorising information for a few seconds or a few hours 

Long-term memory: Memorising information for a period of days, weeks, or months 

Sequential memory: Memorising information in the correct order, e.g. telephone numbers 

Visual perception refers to the brain processing and interpreting 

information received from the eyes. 

Visual perception

Imagination/creativity indicates the child’s ability to create a scene using available means and creative activities. 


Concentration refers to the child’s ability to pay attention to a certain tasks, despite distracting environmental factors. 

Logical thinking

Logical thinking refers to the child’s ability to make logical deductions based on available information. 

The advantages of improved logical thinking is that it allows the child to react effectively to problems and it enhances creative thinking. 


The role of emotions in the learning process, as well as on the general functioning of the physical body, is greatly underestimated. 

A negative emotional environment and constant negative emotions, fear and depression can leave a child with poor health and a disability to learn and process new information. 

Brain functions are influenced by two states –under stress (CIA) or when relaxed (CAT) 


Mathematical development is an advanced form of language used to understand and reason about physical, concrete phenomena. Enhanced mathematical development allows the child to develop more insight and a better understanding of the environment, for example, when baking a cake or building a cabinet. 

Low Muscle Tone: 

Muscle tone is the tension present in the muscles of the body, which enables one to assume different postures against gravity. Sufficient muscle tone provides a base for accurate movements and is required for all motor actions of the body, e.g. walking, grasping a pencil, sitting upright, etc. 

Results of poor muscle tone: 

  • A general delay in development, especially in relation to gross and fine motor skills 

  • Untidy handwriting 

  • Slow working speed 

  • Inability to sit quietly to concentrate for a required period of time 

  • Hyperactive behaviour – moves around a lot in an attempt to build up the tone in the muscles 

  • Often appears tense with frequent headaches and tiredness 

  • The body will increase the size of superficial muscles in an effort to provide more support 

Crossing the midline: 

Refers to a child’s ability to reach across the imaginary line down the centre of the body with the arms and legs. 

Results of an inability to cross the midline: 

  • Poor writing patterns 

  • Affected gross motor skills 

  • Insufficient fine co-ordination skills 

Age requirements

Age requirement

for a...

3 year old

Age requirement

for a...

4 year old

Age requirement

for a...

5 year old

Age requirement

for a...

6 year old

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